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Funeral paintings are an attempt to immortalize the name of the deceased in the Pharaonic civilization


Pharaonic funerary paintings

Pharaonic funerary paintings are displayed in the Egyptian Museum. They are a group of paintings that are displayed in the western gallery on the ground floor of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

The stelae are known as stone slabs bearing inscriptions that were erected for various reasons. The original purpose of the funerary stelae was to commemorate the name of the deceased. The funerary stelae came into use since the Early Dynastic Period and contained the king’s name inside the serekh sign and were erected in niches inside the cemetery.

From the Third Dynasty onwards, they were carved as false doors, or a symbolic portal through which the spirit of the deceased departed.

Funerary stelae were generally characterized by having circular tops, and this feature became more common since the Middle Kingdom. In the Ramesside era, they were erected on both sides of the entrances to the cemetery. The stelae became more ornate throughout history. They were often decorated with scenes of the deceased’s family, such as the Amenhotep portrait, as well as scenes The offering.

Since the New Kingdom, funerary deities have been depicted on these panels, and sometimes they have been engraved with hieroglyphic texts, including the autobiography, which contains the credited good deeds of the deceased during his life, which show him in his best face and thus enhance his chances in the afterlife.

The Egyptian Museum consists of two floors, the ground floor of which is allocated to heavy antiquities “such as stone coffins, statues, paintings, and wall inscriptions,” while the upper floor is allocated to light antiquities such as “manuscripts, statues of gods, royal mummies, relics of daily life, pictures of mummies, unfinished sculptures, statues and utensils of the Greco-Roman era, and antiquities related to afterlife beliefs.” ", as well as complete collections such as the "Tutankhamun Collection".

The development of funerary paintings

The ancient Egyptians developed the form of funerary paintings throughout ancient Egyptian history.

In the Old Kingdom, funerary paintings were installed in one of the gaps in the wall in the cemetery, and from there the idea of ​​the false door developed.

As for the Middle Kingdom, the paintings with a round top that appeared in the First Dynasty returned, but with a finer division, and the upper part was round, and sometimes with a column and papyrus stems.

While the paintings of the New Kingdom were in the same shape, with a round top, along with some of them that were shaped with a pyramid-shaped top, and the latter was the one that was commonly used in the Ramesside era. In these paintings, the owner of the painting and his family appeared, worshiping the gods.

In the late era, it was distinguished by paintings of a rectangular shape with a round top, starting with the eyes of the audjan, followed by the death, and pictures of the goddess. Then the view leaned toward the hieroglyphic text, which contained the name of the deceased, his titles, and his duties.

Among the most famous funerary paintings, located in the Tell Basta Museum, the most important of which is a painting that represents its owner standing, offering food and a ram offering to a group of deities, namely Khnum, Hathor, and Isis.

The ancient Egyptians also knew “sacrificial tables” as one of the important elements in ancient funerary architecture. In ancient Egypt, they were made in a specific shape and decorated with various inscriptions and decorations that express the funerary scene.

Sacrificial tables were one of the components of funerary furniture in ancient Egyptian tombs, as offerings brought by relatives of the deceased, or by the priest who represented them in performing the funeral ritual, were placed on them.
journalist since 2011, member of the Journalists Syndicate, graduate of the University of Montreal, Journalism and News Editing Division, media advisor, He writes about health, skin care and relaxation.