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Gandhi starts fasting in defense of his country's independence


Mahatma Gandhi Indian revolutionary

Today marks the 74th anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi starting fasting in Mumbai in defense of the unity and independence of India, on March 3, 1939, in protest of British policies, and it was a defensive method for the Indian leader, just as Gandhi always declared that his fast would not be against Englishmen only, but as a protest against the mistreatment of the untouchables by the Hindus, and as penance for discrimination among them.

Gandhi was a prominent politician and spiritual leader of India during the Indian independence movement. He pioneered satyagraha, which is resistance to tyranny through mass civil disobedience, firmly founded on ahimsa or complete non-violence.


In the following books, we monitor how the books talked about the great Indian leader, and how he led India towards independence.

The story of my experiences with the truth

Gandhi is considered one of the most inspiring figures of the modern era. In his autobiography, Gandhi tells the story of his life and how he developed the concept of satyagraha or "peaceful resistance", a set of principles that are based on religious, political and economic foundations at the same time. Its summary is courage, truth, and non-violence, and it aims to defeat the occupier; By highlighting his injustice to public opinion. Not only was satyagraha the engine of the Indian people's struggle for independence, but it was the main engine of many nonviolent resistance processes in the twentieth century.

Great soul Mahatma Gandhi

In this book, Akkad describes Mahatma Gandhi as the saint of the twentieth century. He says: That simple, peaceful man was able to unite India on one word despite the multiplicity of its cultures and the different sects of its people, in a way that makes it closer to being different countries, not one country, so the task of unifying it was a fantasy. And through the policy of peaceful resistance advocated by Gandhi and derived from the tolerant religious teachings that were in India, he was able to force the empire on which the sun never sets to leave its vast rich colonies in India without violence. And Akkad, as usual, in dealing with the biographies of the media, studies what he considers the keys to their personalities and psychological traits, so we find him recounting some historical incidents to show the genius of Gandhi and the extent of his highness and tolerant spirit, so that he became a symbol of peace and non-violence and a spiritual father of free India.

Gandhi and the Indian Movement

Sabri Musa Gandhi describes in this book, saying: He is a man of short stature, of great stature, who was able to successfully lead the Indian independence march from the British Empire, at a time when the British Empire was at the height of its strength. Gandhi was a man of thought and movement, mixing his beliefs and practices. He was a thinker and a fighter, a monk and a warrior. His resistance was based on what was called the philosophy of non-violence, which is a set of principles based on a number of religious, political and economic foundations, with the aim of bringing about political change without the use of force as a mechanism. That change. The philosophy of nonviolence can take many forms. Civil disobedience or nonviolent resistance, non-obedience and non-cooperation. With this philosophy, Gandhi was able to stand with an olive branch in the face of the British military machine with all its tyranny, succeeding in the liquidation of colonialism and the liberation of India.

Post-Gandhi India: A History of the World's Largest Democracy

Written by Ramachandra Guha, the book covers more than six decades of India's history, from post-partition, through the years of growth and upbringing under Nehru, to the destabilization of central power of the Indian National Congress Party and the rise of populism, and shows how modern India despite its It suffered from conflicts that preserved its unity, and in general it remained a functioning democracy. In conclusion, the book reviews the reasons for India's survival, and provides testimony to India's unique position as a model of modern, non-Western democracy.

Mahatma Gandhi

Prominent politician and spiritual leader of India during the Indian independence movement. He pioneered the satyagraha resistance to tyranny through mass civil disobedience, firmly founded on ahimsa or total non-violence, which led to India's independence and inspired many civil rights and freedom movements across the world. Gandhi is known all over the world as Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma meaning "great soul", an honorific applied to him by Rabindranath Tagore, also in India as Babu.

He is officially honored in India as the Father of the Nation; His birthday, October 2, is celebrated there as "Gandhi Jayanti", which is a national holiday, and globally as the International Day of Nonviolence. Gandhi was a racist, as he believed that blacks are inferior to Indians and whites, and he also supported the distinction between whites and blacks and saw that whites and Indians are a higher race than the black race, so he believed in the theory of the Aryan race and considered that blacks are uncivilized people whose lives resemble the lives of animals with low intelligence and they were called "Kefir" is a derogatory term. In the Indian Revolution, Gandhi used nonviolent civil disobedience while he was an expatriate lawyer in South Africa, at a time when the Indian community was struggling for civil rights. After his return to India in 1915, he organized protests by peasants, farmers and urban workers against excessive land taxes and discrimination. After assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led national campaigns to alleviate poverty, increase women's rights, build religious and national amity, end untouchability, and increase economic self-reliance. Above all, he aimed to achieve Purna Swaraj or India's independence from foreign domination. Gandhi also led his followers in the non-cooperation movement protesting the British imposition of a tax on salt in the 1930 Dandi Salt March, which was a distance of 400 km. He later demonstrated against Britain to get out of India. Gandhi spent several years in prison in both South Africa and India.

As a practitioner of ahimsa, he swore to speak the truth and prayed that others would do the same. Gandhi lived modestly in a self-sufficient society, and wore the traditional Indian dhoti and shawl, which he hand-woven on the Charka. He ate a simple vegetarian diet, and undertook prolonged fasts as a means of both self-purification and social protest.

Early life and background

Gandhi was born on October 2, 1869, in the coastal town of Porbandar on the Kathiawar Peninsula, to a Hindu Gujarati family with a long history in political work. . His first and second wives died after each of them gave birth to a daughter, and he did not have children from his third wife and asked her permission to marry the fourth. In 1866, on October 2, 1869, Putlibai gave birth to her last child, Mohandas, at the Gandhi family's residence in the city of Porbandar. In his childhood, Gandhi was influenced by Indian classics such as "The Stories of Shravana and King Harichandra," and wrote in his autobiography that they left an indelible impression on his mind.

His family's religious background was eclectic. His father was a Hindu of the "Mudha Banya" caste, and his mother was a Vaishnava who follows the Pranami and Krishna tradition, whose religious texts include the Bhagavad-Gita, the "Bhagavata Purana", and a group of 14 texts that tradition believes represent the essence of the Vedas and the Qur'an. And the Bible. Gandhi was greatly influenced by his mother and learned piety from her, and he learned honesty and solidity from his father.

In 1874 his father left Karamchand for the state of Rajkot, became an advisor to its ruler, and became a divan of Rajkot after two years, and his brother Tulsidas succeeded him in Porbandar, and his family moved to Rajkot to reside with him.

Gandhi, right, with his elder brother Laxmidas in 1886.

Gandhi attended a local school in Rajkot near his home, where he learned the basics of arithmetic, history, Gujarati language and geography, and joined secondary school when he was twelve years old. He was a shy student who avoided company and had no companion but books and lessons.

Gandhi married the custom of the Indians at the age of thirteen in May 1883 from Kasturba Gandhi in an arranged marriage according to Indian customs, and it was a group wedding that included his brother and cousin, and he was not twenty until he had four children, and in his biography Gandhi wrote that he was not satisfied with the marriage in This young age, and that his family did not take into account their interests when marrying them, and regretfully described his lustful feelings towards his young bride, and his jealousy towards her when she went to the temple with her friends.

His father died when he was seventeen years old in late 1885, and at the same time he had his first child, who died after suffering from difficulty breathing for about four days, and he completed secondary school in November 1887 in Ahmedabad. He entered Samaldas College in Hafnagar in January 1888, before leaving after the end of the first term. In July 1888, his wife, Kasturba, gave birth to their son, Harilal.

his life in London

Gandhi while studying law in London

Gandhi and his wife Kasturba in 1902

Gandhi began thinking of leaving for England after a family friend, Mavji Daffy, advised him to study law in London, and he found great opposition from his family, because they feared him falling into temptations in which a foreign young man falls in a civilized center like London, and his mother allowed him to travel after his pledge By not drinking alcohol, eating meat, and avoiding women.

Gandhi left Porbandar on August 10, 1888, heading to Bombay, where his sect held a meeting and summoned him to appear before it and told him that they did not accept his going to England and that this was contrary to their religion, and that it was impossible to adhere to the provisions of religion in England. He asked them not to interfere in his affairs, and considered him outside the sect, and imposed a fine on everyone who helped him in his travel.

Gandhi left Bombay on September 4, 1888 for London, and he struggled a lot to choose his food, as he found the majority of people eating meat, and he knew a vegetarian restaurant that he needed throughout his stay in London. Gandhi attended University College in London and studied law.

Gandhi showed interest in the welfare of the poor dockland communities in London. In 1889, the port workers went on strike to demand better wages and working conditions, and the sailors, shipbuilders, and factory workers stood in solidarity with them. The efforts of Cardinal Manning and John Burns resulted in ending the port workers' strike.

The features of Gandhi's personality began to become clear. His vegetarianism was a constant source of embarrassment for him, as this cultural heritage turned him into conviction and faith, so he established a vegetarian club, headed by Dr. Oldfield, editor of “The Vegetarian” magazine, and Mr. Edwin Arnold became vice president, and Gandhi the secretary. It seems that Gandhi's life in England, and his experiences there, were consistent with his economic view and his concept of health.

Attorney's certificate

Gandhi obtained a certificate in June 1891 when he was twenty-two years old, and his name was included in the Supreme Court, then he left London for his homeland, and upon his arrival he learned that his family had hidden from him the death of his mother during his stay in England, so he resided for a period in Rajkot and then moved to Bombay to study Indian law And gaining experience in the Supreme Court, and he stayed there for about five months and did not achieve what he wanted in it, as he found that learning Indian law was boring, and he faced psychological difficulty in questioning witnesses, so he returned to Rajkot to earn his modest living from writing petitions and notes for litigants, but he was forced to stop when he collided with the British officer Sam Sunny in a case involving his brother.

In 1893, a merchant named "Dada Abdullah" asked him to go to South Africa to represent his company in a big case where the company claimed 40,000 pounds sterling before the court in Johannesburg, and they offered him a wage of 105 pounds sterling, with food, accommodation, and travel expenses, and he prepared to travel. From India to the colony of Natal in South Africa, also part of the British Empire

Mahatma Gandhi sayings about life, love, friendship, women and humanity

First they ignore you, then they laugh at you, then they fight you, and in the end you win!

Man is the product of his thoughts. What he thinks becomes so.

The best way you can find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others!

Happiness is when what you think, what you say, and what you do are in harmony

Live as if you will die tomorrow. Learn as if you live forever.

The true adornment of a woman is her personality and purity.

The coward is not able to show love, for this is the prerogative of the brave

The day the power of love overcomes the love of power, the world will know peace.

God is love. It's the only fact I totally agree with.

The greatness of a nation and its moral growth can be judged by the way they treat animals.

Asking for service without selfish humility and interest.

I hate sin but love the sinner.

Our greatest ability as human beings is not to change the world but to change ourselves.

What is the obstacle that love cannot overcome?

When doing something, do it with love or don't do it at all

You can tie me up, you can torture me, you can even destroy my body, but you can never lock up my mind.

A man must forget his anger before he falls asleep.

No one can hurt me without my permission.

Where there is love there is life

You must not lose faith in humanity, humanity is an ocean, if a few drops of the ocean are polluted, the ocean will not be polluted.

The customer is the most important visitor to our facilities. He does not depend on us. We count on it. It is not an interruption in our work. is the purpose of it.

I die each night when I fall asleep and are reborn the next morning when I wake up.

Jane English, or as she is known on social media (Education English), Journalist. I graduated from Memorial University in Journalism. She writes in several fields: work - entertainment - sports - health - science She currently lives in the Middle East, Egypt, and works on creating educational content for the English language